The financial market operates within stringent boundaries, including strict policies in place. Naturally, when it comes to transactions, lending, investing, etc., one is bound to proceed within the set regulations.
With shadow banking, though, this is different. It involves a whole network of many institutions engaging in lending and investing practices without the restraints of traditional banking.
The “working in the shadows” nature of these institutions raises many questions related to legality, risks, etc. We explore the mechanisms, history of the 2008 financial crisis, the systemic risks of shadow banking systems, and more.
A shadow banking system is a collective of non-banking financial institutions or intermediaries (NBFIs). They provide the same help as commercial banks. However, these shadow banks are not under the authority of any international or national banking regulatory board. They do not own conventional banking licenses as traditional banks and do not have strict regular banking regulations to follow.
Individuals or companies in need of funding who want to avoid credit intermediation can get financial support and liquidity from these banks. They provide credit like traditional banks and credit unions.
However, they are not legally answerable to any regulatory authority. This leads to a lack of transparency in the lending process, further highlighting the moniker of "shadow" banking. In 2007, PIMCO economist Paul McCulley first coined this term while discussing the phenomenon of NBFIs and their economic impact.
Shadow banking systems operate with various players within them. These include brokers, lenders, and different credit intermediaries that work outside the boundaries of the regular banking sector.
Shadow banking institutions work as intermediaries between lenders and borrowers, earning profit from service fees and interest rate differentials (IRD). They acquire investment funding from traditional investors. With this funding, they buy long-term investments like securities, expecting a high ROI.
There are many shadow banking examples worth noting. They include:
When understanding how shadow banking systems work and their qualities, knowing how they differ from regular banking is essential.
|Shadow Banking||Traditional Banking|
|Regulation||Less regulation||Heavy regulation under governmental regulatory boards like FDIC and Federal Reserve.|
|Safety nets||No safety nets like debt guarantees or deposit insurance are in place due to the unregulated nature.||The regular banks get central bank funding and have access to safety nets.|
|Market position||Less secure||Stable; central role within the global financial system.|
|Nature of operations||Intermediaries in the shadow banking system engage in various non-deposit-taking activities, like investment banking, lending, and securitization.||Traditional banks get deposits from customers and provide loans using the same capital.|
|Deposits||Do not require minimum deposits.||It requires a minimum deposit amount.|
Within the financial landscape, shadow banking originally came as a groundbreaking new solution. Real estate investors and companies could get financing from these alternate non-banking financial institutions without dealing with the oversight that traditional lenders need.
However, problems did arise during 2007-2008 when some investors pulled their assets due to uncertainty with the long-term investments and their value. The shadow banks had to conduct "fire sales" to sell the assets to pay back the investors. This further reduced their market value when more shadow banking institutions sold similar assets to reflect the low average market price.
Following the financial crisis, though, the shadow banking industry did expand. They matched the credit demand for borrowers who wanted to avoid traditional banks. The past global financial crisis prompted regulators to scrutinize these banking entities more. For the most part, the shadow banks are still unregulated.
There are positives to shadow banking systems that are important to remember.
The burden of uninsurable and uninsured deposits falls partially on the traditional banks with the support of shadow banks. This allows for better financial stability in the global financial system.
To elaborate, a lot of people who opt for shadow banking are institutional investors. They have a lot of capital, but they do not want to add it all into insured banks due to deposit insurance limitations. For them, shadow banks working as trading houses or hedge funds are better alternatives. This further benefits the real economy as the risk is reduced.
Shadow banks work with lower overhead costs compared to regular banks. Plus, they provide offers with lower interest rates to borrowers and charge lower fees.
Shadow banks are more flexible than regular banks, especially with lending practices. People opting for loan offers from these non-bank entities get flexible loan repayment terms compared to standard loan approval processes. Plus, they are free from credit intermediation when shadow banks lend money to them. This makes shadow banking better for people to get loans with low credit scores.
Shadow banking activities promote diversification within the financial system. They allow people to get money, credit, and similar assets from lenders outside the traditional banking sector. This is useful for people with bad credit conditions to get funding without eligibility restrictions.
Besides lending, shadow banks provide various services, like financing small or medium-sized businesses. If a company is near insolvency or bankruptcy, it can get financial support more quickly from these intermediaries than regular commercial banks. The shadow banks also provide mortgages to borrowers and consulting services for better financial management.
It takes a short time for the shadow banks to process applications to borrowers. Since they skip steps like a hard credit check, they can disburse the funds more quickly than traditional banks.
Shadow banks have regulatory arbitrage, which results in higher growth rates. Compared to that, traditional banks have slower growth rates since there are more cost restrictions in place. Unlike them, shadow banks do not have to keep a minimum deposit amount as lending collateral.
While there is a good side, shadow banking systems do have some flaws. Here are some of the most noteworthy risks in place.
Many NBFIs get short-term funds that the investors later invest into long-term assets. This can destabilize financial security with the rapid selloff of the available assets in the money markets. That causes serious liquidity risks.
“Shadow banks are vulnerable because they lack the resources necessary to weather a rapid influx of cash withdrawal requests from depositors," said Ricky Spears, CEO and CMO of Ricky Spears. “Commercial banks, however, indirectly support these shadow financial institutions. In times of crisis, it is more challenging for them to redirect funds to their covert operations. Because of this, shadow banks not only face substantial dangers on their own but also endanger individuals and startups.”
Investments like mortgage-backed securities are at risk in shadow banking systems due to sudden market fluctuations. In case of any changes within the credit market or a real estate market downturn, people can lose the money they invested.
Shadow banks do not fall under traditional banking regulations like commercial banks do. That also brings issues like less transparency and regulatory oversight. The latter "can lead to increased financial vulnerability for borrowers," said Nicolas Krauss, the founder and CEO of dasFlow Custom Athleisure Apparel.
“For example, the terms of a loan could be changed at any point without notice, or the interest rates could be prohibitive. Unregulated lending practices might also lead to unforeseen fees and penalties. It's crucial for individuals or startups to thoroughly understand the terms before engaging with any non-traditional financial institution and consider seeking advice from a financial professional.”
Shadow banks do not have enough measures in place for consumer protection for borrowers and depositors. So, they are at the risk of predatory lending practices. "Due to the less-regulated nature of these systems, unscrupulous lenders may exploit borrowers with unfair loan terms, hidden fees, or exploitative practices," said Roy Lau, the co-founder of 28 Mortgage.
“For example, a startup in urgent need of funds may unknowingly enter into a loan agreement that carries exorbitantly high interest rates, resulting in financial distress. These predatory practices may not be immediately evident, making it crucial for borrowers to exercise caution and thoroughly understand the terms before engaging with shadow banking systems.”
Some of the shadow banks work with regulatory arbitrage. They exploit the available loopholes in regulatory frameworks to evade capital requirements and oversight. This can lead to more systemic risk in the traditional banking sector, as we saw with the 2007-2008 financial crisis.
Shadow banking systems make it simple to get a lot of money market funds or credit without traditional banking limits. For example, factors like having a low credit score disqualify people from taking loans with low-interest rates. However, since conventional regulations do not apply when shadow banking entities lend money, they are more flexible than traditional lenders. So, this is a big draw for investors, individuals, and companies to get large loans without worries.
However, it is still essential to keep the potential risks in mind to avoid a global financial crisis. Know the history of shadow banking intermediaries in the global banking sector, its uses, and examples.
Moreover, there are both positive and negative sides to shadow banking systems regarding lending activities. Understand the systemic risk of shadow banks besides the benefits you can expect. Then, you can choose between a shadow bank and a regular bank for your funding needs.
Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that do not fall under the regulatory framework of any central authority. Thus, these non-bank financial institutions can create credit without any regulatory oversight. Examples of shadow banking instructions include private equity funds, hedge funds, mortgage lenders, and some large-scale investment banks.
Financial Stability Board (FSB) is the name of an internationally active organization of regulatory and financial authorities from top international financial institutions and global economies.
The Financial Stability Board does define what constitutes shadow banking systems and their functions. Plus, it identifies potential risks that can lead to any financial crisis and provides suitable preventive advice. But it has no regulatory authority over the shadow banking institutions directly.
For example, the NBFIs can choose to listen to the recommendations from the FSB but not carry them out.
The shadow banks have an unregulated nature. So, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) does not insure the investor dollars here as they do with bank deposits.
The shadow banking system is still very relevant in the current financial landscape. The total asset value in the shadow banking industry is over $100 trillion, as recorded in 2019.
Reportedly, the shadow banking sector has a relative share of $293.3 trillion in total banking assets by 2021. As per the FSB reports, this industry grew at an 8.9% rate in 2021, totaling 49.2%. It is spread globally, so the industry is quite large. The most significant concentration of these financial assets is available in the United States, with China coming close second.